Testing is the determination of the characteristics of a product against the requirements of an applicable standard, according to a recognised standard defining the test procedure and the conditions under which the test has to be done. Testing can be very diverse and varied and can range from non-destructive test to totally destructive analysis.

Non-destructive analysis allows for the product to be used after testing (including methods such as x-rays, ultrasounds, pressure testing), while destructive analysis results in the product being no longer fit for use (such as chemical, mechanical or microbiological).